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MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS .

Multiple sclerosis is also called slow virus ( the virus is latent in the body where, drawing nourishment out of it, it develops causing the onset of the actual pathology) .

- Definition

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disorder of the Central Nervous System (CNS) (1) N.B.(the number indicates the glossary of specific words to the end of article), of unknown etiology ( all the causes underlying a pathology), probably autoimmune (2), defined clinically by typical symptoms, signs and disease progression defined as relapsing-remitting course (periods of riacutization alternating to periods of rare remission of symptoms) characterized by scattered areas of inflammation , demyelination (loss of myelin, that is the proteo-lipidic coat of neuronal axons) (3) , and axonal injury ( such a injury eliminates the possibility of communication and, therefore, the control on the muscular system and peripheral nervous system (4) by CNS). The areas of tissue damage are localized to the brain

( cerebrum and cerebellum) optic nerves (nerves departing from brain and directed to the eyes; they are essential to the vision), and spinal cord (5).


- Clinical manifestation.

Symptoms onset occurs between ages 15 and 50 years. The outbursts of inflammatory demyelination (poussées or recidivations) are characterized by symptoms of neurologic nature. However, the symptoms are very variable and heterogeneous. In younger patients the disease usually starts with subacute or acute onset of neurologic symptoms and signs most often reflecting disease in optic nerves , pyramidal tracts (two voluminous axon bundles from cerebral cortex and descending up to the spinal cord where make a contact, Synapse, with neurons engaged in motor control), cerebellum (part of CNS responsible of superior motor control of the whole body), central vestibular system (part of CNS responsible of the body equilibrium). Therefore, clinical visual signs and symptoms include loss of visual acuity , diplopia (double vision) monocular ipovisus (loss of vision from one eye), motor symptoms as gait disorders secondary to the spastic paraparesis (6), (7), and mioclonus (8) associated to ipoasthenia ( loss of muscle strength) and loss of dexterity.

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